In the judicial system, under two different legal systems, wrongdoing is punished and victims are compensated. The case can be viewed from the perspective of criminal law or civil law. Criminal law is concerned with harm to the public, while civil law is concerned with harm to individuals. Therefore, the criminal law differs from other laws in the following aspects.
1. By definition
Criminal law is defined at the local, state, and federal levels. It defines criminal activities and stipulates legal penalties for crimes such as theft, assault, and arson. Such cases can only be conducted through the criminal court system. On the contrary, civil law defines the private rights of individuals. This means that civil law only applies when a person’s rights have been violated. Such matters are handled outside the court and can be resolved by a third-party mediator.
2. Press focus
Criminal law is a legal institution that deals with actions that may be offensive or interpreted as endangering the public, the country, or society. This is true even if the direct victim of the act is an individual. Examples include assault, murder, drunk driving, and theft. On the other hand, civil law is a legal institution that deals with acts that cause harm to individuals or private entities such as companies. Examples include breach of contract, defamation, property damage, and negligence leading to injury or death.
3. Burden of proof
The standards of criminal courts are quite different from those of civil courts. The defendant in the criminal court was either found guilty or acquitted. The federal or state government has the responsibility to prove that the defendant undoubtedly committed the crime. On the other hand, the plaintiff in the civil court filed a lawsuit against the defendant. In this case, the plaintiff bears the burden of proof to prove that the defendant is responsible for the problem. If the jury decides that the defendant is responsible for the harm, the defendant shall be held liable.
4. Subject to legal sanctions
If a judge or jury finds the defendant guilty in a criminal case, the defendant will be sentenced according to the established guidelines of the current criminal law. Judges will have certain discretion, and legal penalties may include probation, fines or imprisonment. In contrast, a jury can order a defendant found responsible in a civil case to pay damages to the plaintiff. The damages may be in the form of financial compensation or quantified losses, such as medical expenses or the pain suffered by the plaintiff.